Table 3

Case–control polysomnography studies involving patients with non-degenerative movement disorders

DystoniaGadoth et al 107 1989HPD (3)
HC (11)
PSG over two nights (two patients, and one night in one patient and HC)Sleep structure appeared to be normal in all subjects.
DystoniaJankel et al 108 1983DMD (4)
HC (4)
PSG over three nightsPSG showed increased sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency and unusually high voltage of sleep spindles (>100µV) sleep spindles during N2.
DystoniaJankel et al 1 09 1984DMD (9)
HC (9)
PSG over three nightsAll patients slept poorly, patients with advance stages of dystonia all displayed high-amplitude (>150µV) spindles during N2 and N3, increased sleep latency, less REM sleep, increased no of awakenings and poor sleep efficiency.
DystoniaFish et al 110 1990Primary TD (14)
Secondary TD (10)
Other neurological disorders (39)
HC (10)
PSG over two nightsFour patients (taking benzodiazepines) with TD had increased sleep spindles more than both control groups. All patients with severe disease had abnormal sleep spindles.
DystoniaFish et al 111 1991Primary TD (14)
Secondary TD (10)
Other neurological disorders (39)
HC (10)
Same sample as Fish et al., 1990
PSG over two nightsAll patients and controls showed reduced EMG activity during REM sleep compared with wakefulness. Patients with secondary TD had fewer bursts of activity than normal subjects. RBD was absent in all groups.
DystoniaFish et al 112 1991Primary TD (14)
Secondary TD (10)
Other neurological disorders (39)
HC (10)
Same sample as Fish et al., 1990
PSG over two nightsMovements were most frequent during awakening, proceeded by N1, with very few movements during N2 and REM sleep. Sleep-related movements in primary and secondary TD emerged after brief awakenings.
DystoniaLobbezoo et al 113 1996CD (9)
HC (9)
PSG over two nightsPSG in CD patient were normal. Sleep was associated with an improvement of symptoms in CD, with abnormal cervical muscle activity decreasing immediately when lying down and then being abolished when transitioning to light NREM sleep.
DystoniaBrüggemann et al 81 2014DRD (23)
HC (26)
PSG over one night, PSQI, ESS, SSS, FEPS-2, BDI, self-administered comorbidity questionnaireSleep quality, SSS and ESS was similar across groups. Six patients underwent PSG, two had reduced sleep efficiency, two increased sleep latency, five increased REM latency, four had initiation problems and four had increased in numbers of arousal.
DystoniaAntelmi et al 79 2017CD (20)
HC (22)
One full night of PSG, RLS, PSQI, ESS, BDIPSQI showed significant reduction in sleep quality, and correlation with higher scores of BDI. ESS scores were normal. Difficulties in sleep efficiency and increased sleep latency and increased REM sleep latency. Patients had lower muscle amplitude contraction over the dystonic muscles compared with HC in slow wave sleep and REM sleep.
Tic DisordersHashimoto et al 114 1981TS (9)
HC (9)
PSGAt all stages of sleep, body movements during sleep were more frequent in cases of TS. Twitch movements in REM sleep were significantly increased in TS. TS patients had increased total sleep time, REM sleep and NREM sleep.
Tic DisordersVoderholzer et al 115 1997TS (7)
HC (7)
Two nights of PSG5/7 showed frequent PLMS in NREM and total sleep time significantly lower in TS group (p<0.05).
Tic DisordersCohrs et al 116 2001TS (25); adults
HC (11)
v-PSG over two consecutive nightsPatients with TS showed reduced sleep efficiency, total sleep time/time in bed, and percentage of slow wave sleep, as well as significantly prolonged sleep latency, significantly increased percentage of N1, percentage of time awake, and increased number of awakenings and sleep stage changes/hour sleep period time.
Tic DisordersKostanecka-Endress et al 117 2003TS (17); children
HC (16)
Two nights of PSG, CBCL sleep items (parent), semi structured interview with parents and patientsChildren with TS demonstrated longer sleep period time, longer sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency and prolonged wakefulness after sleep onset. Short arousal-related movements were increased in TS.
Tic DisordersKirov et al 89 2007TS (18)
TS+ADHD (18)
ADHD (18)
HC (18)
Two nights of PSGTS patients had lower sleep efficiency and elevated arousal index in sleep. TS+ADHD patients had reduced sleep efficiency, elevated arousal index and increase in REM sleep.
Tic DisordersKirov et al 118 2007TS+ADHD (19)
HC (19)
Two nights of PSGShorter REM sleep latency and increased REM sleep duration in patients with TS+ADHD.
Tic DisordersStephens et al 88 2013TS (20)
TS+ADHD (21)
HC (16)
ADHD (33)
Two nights of
PSG, respiration belt
Total no of leg movements higher in TS+ADHD group compared with TS only. Children with TS and ADHD had a significant higher number of arousals from slow wave sleep and total arousals.
Tic DisordersKirov et al 119 2016TS (21)
ADHD/TS (21)
ADHD (24)
HC (22)
Two nights of PSGIncreased REM sleep and shorted REM latency in children with psychiatric disorders than controls.
  • ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; BDI, Beck’s Depression Inventory; CD, cervical dystonia; DRD, dopamine-responsive dystonia; EMG, electromyography; ESS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale; FEPS-2, Sleep-related Personality Traits Questionnaire; HC, healthy control; HPD, Hereditary Progressive Dystonia; NREM1/2/3, Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep stages; PLMS, Periodic Limb Movement during Sleep; PSG, polysomnography; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; RBD, Rapid Eye Movement sleep Behaviour Disorder; REM, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep; RLS, Restless leg syndrome; TD, torsion dystonia; TS, Tourette’s syndrome; v-PSG, video polysomnography.