Table 2

Characteristics of cases and controls

ExposureRelapsing-onset MSProgressive-onset MSControls
N752054011‚ÄČ386
Females, n (%)5501 (73)321 (59)8278 (73)
Nordic6645 (88)490 (91)9974 (86)
Non-Nordic European501 (7)41 (8)875 (8)
Non-European374 (5)10 (2)767 (7)
Ever smoking, n (%)4108 (55)332 (61)5106 (45)
Current smoking, n (%)2670 (36)190 (35)2984 (26)
Past smoking, n (%)1438 (19)142 (26)2122 (19)
Cumulative dose of smoking, pack years (SD)7.6 (8.5)12.3 (11)7.2 (8.6)
Exclusive snuff users, n (%)316 (4.3)21 (4.0)604 (5.4)
No alcohol consumption, n (%)2009 (27)152 (28)3000 (26)
Low alcohol consumption, n (%)1438 (19)110 (20)2102 (18)
Moderate alcohol consumption, n (%)3156 (42)217 (40)4679 (41)
High alcohol consumption, n (%)917 (12)61 (11)1605 (14)
Normal weight, kg/m2 (SD)6200 (89)461 (86)9720 (89)
Overweight, n (%)772 (7.7)40 (11)969 (8.9)
Obesity, n (%)234 (3.1)16 (3.3)226 (2.1)
Mean sun exposure index (SD)6.1 (1.8)5.8 (1.7)6.4 (1.8)
Low sun exposure, n (%)1818 (25)156 (30)2127 (19)
Mean EBNA-1 antibody levels (SD)6821 (3079)6232 (3173)4894 (3245)
Median EBNA-1 antibody levels683861664915
High EBNA-1 antibody levels3463 (78)280 (70)2718 (53)
DRB1*15:01 positive3411 (58)246 (56)1843 (28)
A*02:01 negative3371 (57)237 (54)2927 (45)
Age at disease onset (SD)32.9 (10.0)42.3 (11.0)
  • EBNA-1, Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1; MS, multiple sclerosis.