Table 1

Overview of approved and current phase III SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates

Vaccine typeEU approval (response)UK approvalUS approvalHC approvalAU approvalVaccine nameManufacturerStudy phase IIIStartNProtocol
DNA-based1Zydus Cadila nCov vaccineZydus Cadila (Indian)January 202130 000
BNT162b (D)BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/Pfizer
Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, et al. Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med 2020;383(27):2603-2615. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2034577
April 202044 000NCT04368728

Moderna mRNA-1273Moderna/NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) /Lonza/Catalent/Rovi/Medidata/BIOQUAL
Jackson LA, Anderson EJ, Rouphael NG, et al. An mRNA Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 - Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med 2020;383(20):1920-1931. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2022483
July 202030 000NCT04470427
CVnCoVCureVac/BayerKremsner, P. et al. Phase 1 assessment of the safety and immunogenicity of an mRNA-lipid nanoparticle vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 in human volunteers. medRxiv 2020.11.09.20228551 (2020).August 202037 000NCT04515147
Non- replicable vector(90%)CanSino Ad5-nCoVCanSino Biologics/Beijing Institute of Biotechnology/Canada’s National Research Council/Petrovax (China)Zhu FC, Guan XH, Li YH, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 years or older: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet 2020;396(10249):479-488. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31605-6September 202040 000NCT04526990
(91.6%)Sputnik V (Gamaleya Gam-COVID-Vac)Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Health Ministry of the Russian FederationLogunov DY, Dolzhikova IV, Shcheblyakov DV, et al. Safety and efficacy of an rAd26 and rAd5 vector-based heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine: an interim analysis of a randomised controlled phase 3 trial in Russia [published correction appears in Lancet. 2021 Feb 20;397(10275):670]. Lancet 2021;397(10275):671-681. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00234-8August 202040 000NCT04530396

Janssen Ad26.COV2.S
(Johnson & Johnson)
Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies/Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Emergent BioSolutions/Catalent/Biological ESadoff J, Le Gars M, Shukarev G, et al. Interim Results of a Phase 1-2a Trial of Ad26.COV2.S Covid-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med 2021;384(19):1824-1835. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2034201September 202060 000NCT04505722

AZD1222University of Oxford/AstraZenecaVoysey M et al. Oxford COVID Vaccine Trial Group. Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK. Lancet 2021 Jan 9;397(10269):99-111. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32661-1September 202011 600NCT04540393
Replicable vectorSo far, none of the 22 vaccine candidates in this category has reached phase III.
Inactive virusBIBP/Sinopharm BBIBP-CorVBeijing Institute of Biological Products (BIBP)/Sinopharm (China)Xia S, Zhang Y, Wang Y, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBIBP-CorV: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2021;21(1):39-51. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30831-8September 20203000NCT04560881
IMBCAMS vaccineInstitute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (IMBCAMS)January 202134 000NCT04659239
Bharat Covaxin (Nasenspray)Bharat Biotech/Indian Council of Medical Research/National Institute of VirologyNovember 202026 000NCT04641481
QazCovid-inResearch Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Republic of KazakhstanSeptember 202010 000NCT04530357
Sinovac CoronaVacSinovac/Instituto Butantan/Bio Farma (China)Zhang Y, Zeng G, Pan H, et al. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18-59 years: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2021;21(2):181-192. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30843-4July 202012 688NCT04456595
WIBP vaccineWuhan Institute of Biological Products (WIBP)/Sinopharm (China)Xia S, Duan K, Zhang Y, et al. Effect of an Inactivated Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 on Safety and Immunogenicity Outcomes: Interim Analysis of 2 Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA 2020;324(10):951-960. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15543August 202045 000NCT04510207
Virus-like particlesSo far, none of the 20 vaccine candidates in this category has reached phase III.
Protein-based(93%)AZLB protein subunit vaccineAnhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical (AZLB) (China)Yang S, Li Y, Dai L, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant tandem-repeat dimeric RBD-based protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) against COVID-19 in adults: two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and 2 trials [published online ahead of print, 2021 Mar 24]. Lancet Infect Dis 2021;S1473-3099(21)00127-4. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00127-4July 2020950NCT04466085
(90%)Novavax NVX-CoV2373Novavax/Emergent Biosolutions/Praha Vaccines/Biofabri/Fujifilm Diosynth Biotechnologies (FDB)/Serum Institute of India/SK Bioscience/Takeda Pharmaceutical/AGC Biologics/PolyPeptide GroupKeech C, Albert G, Cho I, et al. Phase 1-2 Trial of a SARS-CoV-2 Recombinant Spike Protein Nanoparticle Vaccine. N Engl J Med 2020;383(24):2320-2332. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2026920November 202030 000NCT04611802
  • European Union (EU): European Medicines Agency; UK: Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency; USA: Food and Drug Administration; HC: Health Canada (Canadian health ministry); Australia (AU): Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration.

  • FDB, Fujifilm Diosynth Biotechnologies; mRNA, messenger RNA; NIAID, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.