Table 1

Status epilepticus trials for emergency presentations reporting rate of misdiagnosis

StudyCentres (n), countryAge groupInitial diagnosis made bySample sizeRate of misdiagnosis (%)Proportion of misdiagnoses specified as pPNES
Leppik et al 8 3, USAAdultsPhysicians, hospital-based7813.51/11
Alldredge et al 9 10, USAAdultsParamedics205510/10
Silbergleit et al 10*79, USABoth (children ≥40 kg)Paramedics8937.163/63
Chamberlain et al 11 11, USAPaediatric (3 months–18 years)Physicians, hospital-based31010ns
Mundlamuri et al 12 1, IndiaBoth (15–65 years)Physicians, hospital-based1500.051/1
Sánchez Fernández et al 13 9, USAPaediatric (1 month–21 years)Paramedics810
Welch et al 14*79, USAPaediatric
(weight ≥13 kg)
Navarro et al 15 39, FranceAdultsPhysicians, prehospital1364.46/6
Kapur et al 1657, USABoth (≥2 years)Physicians, hospital-based3849.637/37
Chamberlain et al 1758, USABoth (≥2 years)Physicians, hospital-based462ns‡ns‡
  • See online supplemental material for search strategy and flow diagram of literature review.

  • *Publication part of RAMPART.

  • †Publication part of ESETT.

  • ‡See the Results section for the results of individual patient data analysis.

  • ESETT, Established Status Epilepticus Treatment Trial; ns, not specified; pPNES, prolonged psychogenic non-epileptic seizures; RAMPART, Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial.