Table 3

Determinants of poor outcomes (mRS 5–6) (n=216)

Poor outcome (mRS score 5–6)
UnivariableMultivariable*
OR95% CIP valueOR95% CIP value
Age (years)
 <60RefRef
 ≥602.871.50 to 5.500.0015.112.08 to 12.56<0.001
Sex
 FemaleRef
 Male1.030.58 to 1.820.916
Race
 African-AmericanRef
 Caucasian0.670.34 to 1.320.245
 Others1.230.56 to 2.740.606
Comorbidities
 Smoking1.200.48 to 2.990.702
 Atrial fibrillation0.650.29 to 1.460.300
 Prior anticoagulation0.400.11 to 1.500.175
 Coronary artery disease1.220.58 to 2.570.604
 Congestive heart failure1.400.65 to 3.050.390
 Diabetes mellitus2.261.26 to 4.070.0062.661.16 to 6.090.021
 Hypertension1.460.73 to 2.930.286
 Hyperlipidaemia0.930.52 to 1.680.819
 Previous stroke0.960.48 to 1.910.904
 Chronic kidney disease1.050.52 to 2.140.887
Admission NIHSS (one unit)1.101.06 to 1.15<0.0011.081.02 to 1.140.006
Large vessel occlusion3.021.63 to 5.59<0.0012.451.04 to 5.780.042
Stroke aetiology
 CardioembolismRefRef
 CS/ESUS0.960.42 to 2.200.9261.350.39 to 4.680.636
 Large-artery atherosclerosis1.560.52 to 4.690.4272.220.54 to 9.090.264
 Small-vessel occlusion0.220.05 to 1.150.0730.210.03 to 1.540.123
Labs
 NLR (one unit)1.071.01 to 1.130.0251.061.01 to 1.110.028
 D-dimer (×100 ng/mL)1.011.00 to 1.020.101
 Absolute lymphocyte (1000/µL)1.010.99 to 1.020.727
 Platelets1.001.00 to 1.000.435
IV tPA0.560.27 to 1.150.115
Thrombectomy0.770.38 to 1.570.469
sICH3.100.96 to 10.00.0583.630.85 to 15.480.081
  • Univariable and multivariable mixed effects binary logistic regression analyses were done to test for the impact of several determinants on getting poor outcomes. Variables that had a p<0.1 were included in the final multivariable model.

  • *The results after multiple imputation using chained equations to handle missing data.

  • CS/ESUS, cryptogenic stroke/embolic stroke of undetermined source; IV IV tPA, intravenous tissue plasminogen activator; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; NLR, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio; sICH, symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage.