Table 2

Descriptive comparison of iatrogenic cases of CAA reported to date, compared with typical features of sporadic CAA

Iatrogenic cases
Sporadic CAAReferences
Age at first presentationMean 37.7 yearsAssociated with increasing age; rare in those under 60 years; current diagnostic criteria state age >55 years 23 44 45
Sex73.9% cases malePathologically more common in women; women more likely to have lobar ICH 44 46
ApoE genotypeε3 present in all cases; homozygous in 66.7%Usually associated with ε2 and ε4 genotypes 45 47
Associated symptomsICH87.0% casesWell recognised 18
Recurrent ICH65.2% casesWell recognised; annual recurrence risk 7.4% (compared with 1.1% for non-CAA ICH) 18 48
Cognitive impairment39.1% casesWell recognised 18
TFNE1 caseWell recognised 9 18
Seizures26.1% casesCan occur but frequency unknown; recognised feature of CAA-related inflammation 18
  • ApoE, apolipoprotein E; CAA, cerebral amyloid angiopathy; ICH, intracerebral haemorrhage; TFNE, transient focal neurological episodes ('amyloid spells').