Table 2

Participant characteristics at baseline (first data point for each participant) for each treatment group

NatalizumabAny other DMTsCategory 1 DMTsCategory 2 DMTsCategory 3 DMTsFingolimod
n=167n=1215n=506n=265n=444n=406
Age (years), mean (SD)48.9 (9.8)52.4 (10.5)54.7 (10.7)52.8 (10.3)49.7 (9.9)50.3 (9.8)
MS duration since diagnosis (years), mean (SD)11.3 (6.1)12.6 (7.5)12.8 (7.6)13.6 (8.4)11.8 (6.1)12.0 (6.7)
Sex, n (%)
 Female140 (83.8)986 (81.2)400 (79.0)218 (82.3)368 (82.9)342 (84.2)
 Male27 (16.2)229 (18.8)106 (21.0)47 (17.7)76 (17.1)64 (15.8)
Education, n (%)
 Primary school or secondary school31 (18.6)323 (26.6)134 (26.5)73 (27.5)116 (26.1)108 (26.6)
 Occupational certificate or diploma67 (40.1)412 (33.9)164 (32.4)97 (36.6)151 (34.0)143 (35.2)
 University bachelor’s degree35 (21.0)277 (22.8)116 (22.9)54 (20.4)107 (24.1)93 (22.9)
 University postgraduate degree34 (20.4)203 (16.7)92 (18.2)41 (15.5)70 (15.8)62 (15.3)
MS type, n (%)
 Relapsing–remitting MS132 (79.0)1022 (84.1)433 (85.6)219 (82.6)370 (83.3)337 (83.0)
 Secondary progressive MS24 (14.4)113 (9.3)38 (7.5)30 (11.3)45 (10.1)42 (10.3)
 Primary progressive MS11 (6.6)80 (6.6)35 (6.9)16 (6.0)29 (6.5)27 (6.7)
Disability (PDDS, 0–8), mean (SD)2.7 (2.0)2.3 (2.1)2.1 (2.2)2.4 (2.0)2.3 (2.0)2.3 (2.0)
No self-reported disease progression in the previous 12 months,* n (%)26.3 (44)30.8 (374)34.2 (173)30.6 (81)27.0 (120)27.6 (112)
Self-assessed disease progression in the previous 12 months (0–10), mean (SD)2.5 (2.6)2.0 (2.2)1.8 (2.2)2.0 (2.2)2.2 (2.3)2.1 (2.2)
HADS depression (0–21), mean (SD)6.0 (3.3)5.2 (3.7)4.9 (3.7)5.7 (3.9)5.4 (3.5)5.4 (3.5)
HADS anxiety (0–21), mean (SD)7.7 (4.2)7.2 (4.2)6.8 (4.3)7.2 (4.4)7.5 (4.1)7.6 (4.1)
Fatigue severity score (0–7), mean (SD)4.7 (1.8)4.0 (2.0)3.8 (2.1)4.2 (2.0)4.3 (1.9)4.3 (1.9)
Fatigue (0–10), mean (SD)5.7 (2.4)4.8 (2.7)4.4 (2.7)5.1 (2.7)5.1 (2.6)5.1 (2.6)
Pain (0–10), mean (SD)3.3 (2.9)3.1 (2.9)2.9 (2.8)3.4 (3.2)3.3 (2.9)3.2 (2.9)
Spasticity (0–10), mean (SD)3.7 (3.0)3.2 (2.9)2.9 (2.9)3.2 (2.9)3.5 (2.9)3.5 (2.9)
Bowel problems (0–10), mean (SD)3.2 (2.9)2.9 (3.0)2.7 (3.0)3.0 (3.0)3.1 (3.0)3.1 (3.0)
Cognitive symptoms (0–10), mean (SD)4.2 (2.5)3.6 (2.7)3.1 (2.6)4.0 (2.6)3.9 (2.7)3.9 (2.7)
Walking difficulties (0–10), mean (SD)4.3 (3.0)3.7 (3.0)3.3 (3.0)3.9 (3.0)4.0 (3.0)3.9 (3.0)
Feelings of depression (0–10), mean (SD)3.8 (2.8)3.1 (2.8)2.9 (2.8)3.4 (2.8)3.3 (2.8)3.3 (2.8)
Vision problems (0–10), mean (SD)2.5 (2.6)2.3 (2.5)2.2 (2.5)2.4 (2.5)2.4 (2.5)2.4 (2.5)
Balance difficulties (0–10), mean (SD)4.7 (2.9)4.0 (2.9)3.6 (2.9)4.2 (3.9)4.3 (2.8)4.2 (2.8)
Bladder problems (0–10), mean (SD)4.3 (3.0)3.6 (3.2)3.5 (3.2)4.0 (3.3)3.8 (3.1)3.7 (3.1)
Sexual dysfunction (0–10), mean (SD)3.4 (3.3)3.4 (3.4)3.2 (3.4)3.6 (3.4)3.4 (3.4)3.4 (3.4)
Feeling of anxiety (0–10), mean (SD)3.9 (2.8)3.1 (2.7)2.9 (2.8)3.1 (2.8)3.3 (2.6)3.3 (2.6)
Sensory symptoms (0–10), mean (SD)5.2 (2.7)4.3 (2.8)4.0 (2.8)4.5 (3.0)4.4 (2.8)4.4 (2.7)
EQ-5D index (0–1), mean (SD)0.72 (0.21)0.75 (0.20)0.76 (0.21)0.75 (0.20)0.75 (0.20)0.75 (0.20)
  • *No self-reported disability progression over the past 12 months means the self-reported score=0.

  • DMT, disease-modifying therapy; EQ-5D, European Quality of Life Five Dimension Questionnaire; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; MS, multiple sclerosis; PDDS, Patient-Determined Disease Steps.