Table 2

Summary of findings

Factors (ref)Post-vac outcomes
B-cell responseT-cell response
SeroconversionIFN-g releaseCD4 +AIM+CD8 +AIM+
OR
(95% CI)
P value
(certainty*)
OR
(95% CI)
P value
(certainty*)
OR
(95% CI)
P value
(certainty*)
OR
(95% CI)
P value
(certainty*)
DMT (UX)
-IFN0.84
(0.38 to 1.83)
0.66
Moderate1,2
0.02
(0.00 to 0.14)
<0.01
very low2,4,5
NiNi
-GA0.87
(0.31 to 2.42)
0.79
Moderate1,2
NiNE0.62
(0.04 to 9.00)
0.72
very low1,2,4,5
-DMF1.98
(0.96 to 4.09)
0.07
Moderate1,2
NiNE3.78
(0.18 to 78.38)
0.39
very low1,2,4,5
-TERI 0.38
(0.16 to 0.90)
0.03
very low2,3
NiNiNi
-S1PRM 0.04
(0.03 to 0.06)
<0.00001
High1
0.04
(0.02 to 0.07)
<0.00001
Low1,2,3
0.01
(0.00 to 0.18)
0.001
very low2,4,5
0.95
(0.08 to 10.71)
0.97
very low1,2,4,5
-NTZ0.53
(0.24 to 1.18)
0.12
Low1,2,4
1.00
(0.20 to 5.12)
1.00
very low1,2,4,5
NE3.95
(0.23 to 69.44)
0.35
very low1,2,4,5
-CLAD0.41
(0.15 to 1.11)
0.08
Low1,2,5
0.01
(0.00 to 0.04)
<0.00001
Low1,2,5
NiNi
-ALEM 0.32
(0.10 to 0.96)
0.04
Very Low2,3
NiNiNi
-aCD20 0.05
(0.04 to 0.06)
<0.00001
High1
1.12
(0.62 to 2.05)
0.70
Moderate1,3
1.13
(0.17 to 7.61)
0.90
Moderate1,2
2.54
(0.89 to 7.27)
0.08
Moderate1,5
aCD20 infusion-to-vac
(per 10 weeks)
1.94
(1.57 to 2.41)
<0.00001
High1
NiNiNi
  • Results with p<0.05 are bolded.

  • *Based on GRADE approach (Baseline: moderate due to observational nature of studies; Embedded Imageupgrade; Embedded Imagedowngrade): 1. Embedded ImageResult in line with quantitative analyses in individual studies; 2. Embedded ImageLow count of studies with measurable relative effect; 3. Embedded Image Inconsistency; 4. Embedded ImageRisk of missing results and 5. Embedded ImageImprecision.

  • aCD20, anti-CD20 therapies; AIM, activation-induced marker; ALEM, alemtuzumab; CLAD, cladribine; DMF, dimethyl fumarate; DMT, disease-modifying therapy; GA, glatiramer acetate; GRADE, Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation; IFN, interferons; IFN-g, interferon-gamma; NE, not estimable; Ni, no information; NTZ, natalizumab; ref, reference; S1PRM, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators; TERI, teriflunomide; UX, unexposed; vac, vaccination.