Table 1

Included Alzheimer’s disease studies

Study (a/b/c=separate study arms)ParticipantsInterventionOutcomes included
% FemaleMean age, yearsn
DrugPlaceboClassDrugDaily dosage, mgDuration, weeks
Herrmann 2008*66 53.877.91313NRIMethylphenidate2021a, 9a
Lanctot 2014†67 61.6762931NRIMethylphenidate2061a, 2a, 7a
Rosenberg 2013†68 61.6762931NRIMethylphenidate2069a
Maier 202069 3874.85454NRIBuproprion150–300121a, 3a, 8a
Mintzer 202113 337610199NRIMethylphenidate20261a, 2a, 9b, 4a, 6a, 7a, 10a
Padala 201845 076.63030NRIMethylphenidate10–20121a, 9a
Mohs 200922 54.377.44745NRIAtomoxetine25–80261a
Frakey 201246 Unknown77.31111NRIModafinil20089c
Levey 2021*‡70 46.270.33939NRIAtomoxetine100261a, 2c, 4c, 6e, 7d, 8a, 9b, 10a
Winblad 200171 62.473.7177169A1 AntNicergoline60261b
Amaducci 199972 UnknownUnknown10295A1 AntNicergoline60521b
Banerjee 202173 6682.8102102A1 AntMirtazapine45128a, 10b
Wang 200974 40.980.61111A1 AntPrazosin688a
Crook 199225 55711514A2 AgGuanfacine0.5133a, 5a, 7b
Mohr 1989*23 a256288 A2 AgClonidine0.122a, 3b, 4b, 5b, 6b, 7a
Schlegel 1989*24 406055A2 AgGuanfacine0.5–122a, 3a, 4b, 5c, 6c, 7a
Huff 199637 aUnknownUnknown9291A2 AntBesipirdine10121b, 8b
Rinne 201738 a59723334A2 AntORM-1274130–60122b, 4c, 5d, 6d, 7c
Peskind 200575 80.6851714B AntPropranolol12069b, 8a, 10a
Mean/total over all studies56.775.845.945.1N/AN/AN/A12.9N/A
  • Drug: NRI=norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; A1 Ant=alpha1 adrenergic receptor antagonist; A2 Ag= alpha2 adrenergic receptor agonist; B Ant=Beta adrenergic receptor antagonist/blocker; A2 Ant=alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonist. Outcomes: Global cognition: 1a=Mini-Mental State Examination; 1b=Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale—Cognitive Subscale. Attention: 2a=Digit Span Forwards; 2b=Continuity of Attention; 2c=Trails A. Visuospatial: 3a=Benton Visual Retention—No. Correct; 3b=Visual Retention Test—Delayed Recall; 3c=15 Objects Test; 3d=Spatial Recognition Memory (latency). Semantic Memory: 4a=Action Verbal Fluency Test; 4b=Supermarket fluency; 4c=Category fluency test. Episodic Visual Memory: 5a=Benton Visual Retention; 5b=Visual Retention Test—Delayed Recall; 5c=Quality of Episodic Memory. Episodic Verbal Memory: 6a=Hopkins Verbal Learning Test—Revised Delayed Recall; 6b=Verbal Learning Delayed Recall; 6c=Rey Verbal Learning—Delayed Recall; 6d=Controlled Oral Word Association Test; 6e=Wechsler Memory Scale—Logical Memory Delayed Recall. Executive Functions and Working Memory: 7a=Digit Span Backwards; 7b=Wechsler Paired Associates; 7c=Quality of Working Memory; 7d=Trails B.

  • General behaviour/neuropsychiatric symptoms: 8a=The Neuropsychiatry Inventory—Total; 8b=Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale—Non-Cognitive Subscale. Apathy: 9a=Apathy Evaluation Scale; 9b=The Neuropsychiatry Inventory—Apathy; 9c=The Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale—Apathy. Agitation: 10a=The Neuropsychiatry Inventory—Agitation; 10b=The Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory.

  • *Cross-over design.

  • †The same trial reported across different publications.

  • ‡Mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease.