Table 4

Overall cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) in persons with multiple sclerosis for selected* underlying causes of death (UCoDs)

ObservedExpectedSMR95% CI
Neoplasms (total)144147.51.00.82 to 1.15
 Malignant neoplasm of colon. rectum and anus2318.81.20.78 to 1.84
 Malignant neoplasm of trachea. bronchus. lung3028.51.10.71 to 1.5
 Malignant neoplasm of breast1014.30.70.34 to 1.29
Diseases of the nervous system and the sense organs (total)51014.734.6†31.7 to 37.8
 Multiple sclerosis4731.9248.9†222.4 to 267.0
 Epilepsy281.322.4†14.9 to 32.3
Diseases of the circulatory system (total)148129.41.10.97 to 1.34
 Acute myocardial infarction5545.41.20.91 to 1.58
 Other ischaemic heart diseases2319.91.20.73 to 1.73
 Cerebrovascular diseases3529.41.20.83 to 1.65
Diseases of the respiratory system (total)4930.91.6‡1.17 to 2.09
 Pneumonia219.22.3‡1.14 to 3.49
 Other chronic lower respiratory diseases1816.21.10.66 to 1.75
Diseases of the digestive system (total)1613.41.20.68 to 1.94
External causes of morbidity and mortality (total)2932.20.90.60 to 1.30
 Accidents1820.30.90.53 to 1.40
 Suicide and intentional self-harm1110.51.00.52 to 1.87
Unknown underlying cause of death32N/AN/AN/A
  • *The following main categories according to the European Shortlist for Causes of Death (ESLCoD) are not reported (see Methods); infectious and parasitic diseases, diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, mental and behavioural disorders, diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, diseases of the musculoskeletal system/connective tissue, diseases of the genitourinary system, complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium, certain conditions originating in the perinatal period, congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities and symptoms, signs, ill-defined causes.

  • †p<0.001.

  • ‡p<0.01.