Table 2

Primary cause of death among former international rugby players and a matched population comparison group

Primary cause of deathFormer international rugby players
(n=412)
Matched population comparison group
(n=1236)
HR (95% CI)P value*
Any cause†121 (29.4%)381 (30.8%)0.86 (0.68 to 1.08)0.19
 Cardiovascular disease54 (13.1%)155 (12.5%)0.89 (0.63 to 1.28)0.534
 Cancer30 (7.3%)108 (8.7%)0.77 (0.50 to 1.19)0.242
 Neurodegenerative disease11 (2.7%)18 (1.5%)2.43 (0.92 to 6.42)0.073
 Respiratory disease11 (2.7%)43 (3.5%)0.62 (0.28 to 1.39)0.247
  • *Cox proportional hazards regression.

  • †All-cause mortality analysis did not fulfil the proportional hazards assumption and showed time-dependent variability.