Table 3

Cox regression models for prediction of the development of LID, wearing off and FOG

VariablesLIDWearing offFOG
HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Age at symptom onset0.963 (0.939 to 0.988)0.0030.946 (0.924 to 0.968)<0.0010.993 (0.966 to 1.020)0.598
Female1.314 (0.799 to 2.159)0.2820.906 (0.568 to 1.445)0.6791.207 (0.730 to 1.994)0.463
Disease duration1.011 (0.996 to 1.027)0.1571.005 (0.989 to 1.020)0.5551.001 (0.983 to 1.019)0.941
Motor subtype
TDRefRefRef
PIGD/indeterminate2.352 (1.410 to 3.923)0.0012.154 (1.317 to 3.524)0.0022.047 (1.209 to 3.464)0.008
DAT availability in the posterior putamen0.571 (0.333 to 0.981)0.0420.858 (0.525 to 1.401)0.5400.771 (0.438 to 1.357)0.366
BMI0.943 (0.869 to 1.023)0.1590.948 (0.873 to 1.029)0.1980.982 (0.898 to 1.073)0.681
LED1.000 (0.999 to 1.001)0.5251.001 (1.000 to 1.002)0.0551.001 (1.000 to 1.002)0.001
WMH volume1.137 (0.909 to 1.421)0.2611.134 (0.929 to 1.385)0.2170.869 (0.595 to 1.270)0.469
CPV1.202 (0.782 to 1.849)0.4021.278 (0.865 to 1.887)0.218 1.539 (1.051 to 2.251) 0.027
  • Results of Cox regression analyses for the development of LID, wearing off and FOG after controlling for age at symptom onset, sex, disease duration, motor subtype, DAT availability in the posterior putamen, BMI, LED and WMH volume.

  • BMI, body mass index CPV, choroid plexus volume; DAT, dopamine transporter; FOG, freezing of gait; LED, levodopa-equivalent dose; LID, levodopa-induced dyskinesia; PIGD, postural instability and gait difficulty; TD, tremor dominant; WMH, white matter hyperintensity.