Table 1

Clinical, cognitive and behavioural characteristics of patient subgroups with/without binary reversals

CharacteristicnfvPPA* bvFTDlvPPAsvPPA
 Binary reversalsPresentAbsentPresentP valueAbsentPresentAbsentPresent
General
No. of patients (%)21 (100)15 (56)12 (44)6 (46)7 (54)20 (91)2 (9)
Sex (male:female)13:811:49:30.925:16:113:70:2
Handedness (right:left)20:114:112:0NT6:06:119:12:0
Age at testing (years)71.5 (8.1)70.0 (7.8)62.5 (5.1) <0.01 66.1 (8.9)68.7 (8.9)65.8 (7.1)69.3 (9.2)
Duration (years)(med (IQR) 3.0 (2.4)4.1 (1.3)5.8 (2.5) 0.03 4.3 (1.7)6.0 (1.8)4.9 (1.8)7.3 (3.0)
MMSE 20.5 (9.5)25.1 (5.2) 21.3 (5.8)0.08 21.0 (5.4) 11.1 (8.6) 22.9 (7.4) 12.5 (7.8)
Neuropsychology
Executive functions
TMT A (/150 s) 81.6 (49.4) 65.1 (42.8) 83.5 (53.6)0.34 102 (56.8) 99.3 (41.2) 48.5 (27.9) 117 (46.7)
TMT B (/300 s) 209.9 (91.3) 171.0 (87.0) 219.9 (97.6)0.19 268.5 (55.4) 278.3 (53.1) 128.3 (87.5) 253.0 (66.5)
Phonological fluency 5.2 (6) 9.5 (4.9) 5.2 (5) 0.04 4.2 (3.6) 3.4 (5.2) 8.2 (5.5) 2.5 (3.5)
Category fluency 8.8 (6.9) 11.5 (7.6) 8.7 (6.8)0.33 5.3 (3.7) 5.3 (7.9) 5.8 (4.2) 4.5 (6.4)
Stroop: colour (/90 s) 85.4 (27.1) 43.6 (21.2) 59.5 (23.1)0.08 78.8 (22.5) 79.0 (18.9) 53.6 (21.8) 66.0 (33.9)
Stroop: word (/90 s) 71.6 (18.4) 28.5 (186) 39.8 (21.7)0.03 49.0 (22.4) 52.3 (8.1) 32.8 (21.3) 64.5 (36.1)
Stroop: ink (/180 s) 154.4 (40) 97.1 (52.3) 122.1 (55.1)0.25 166.3 (33.5) 169.3 (28.4) 96.5 (47.4) 139.0 (58.0)
Verbal working memory
Digit span forward (/12) 3.95 (2.5)8.6 (2.4)6.8 (2.6)0.09 4.3 (2.3) 1.7 (1.5)8.3 (2.1)6.5 (0.7)
Digit span reverse (/12) 2.3 (2.0)5.9 (2.7) 2.7 (2.7) 0.046 2.5 (1.2) 1.9 (2.3)6.8 (2.8)3.5 (4.95)
Language functions
GNT (/30) 13.2 (7.6)16.0 (10.3) 12.5 (9.9)0.30 11.7 (7.5) 2.3 (4.4) 1.2 (3.8) 0.0 (0.0)
BPVS (/150) 122.3 (41.5)137.8 (19.9) 100.8 (55.1) 0.04 140.0 (11.0) 83.0 (59.9) 76.5 (46.8) 31.0 (41.0)
NART (/50)14.4 (13.2)36.2 (8.1)23.5 (12.7) <0.01 30.0 (9.7)10.4 (10.7)19.7 (13.3) 0.0 (N/A )
Word repetition (/45) 32.2 (13.8)NTNT 41.8 (3.7) 24.9 (16.2)44.1 (1.2) 37.5 (2.1)
Sentence repetition (/10) 3.2 (2.6)NTNT 5.2 (2.3) 2.4 (1.6) 7.5 (2.3) 4.5 (2.1)
Sentence construction§ (/25) 15.3 (10.9)NTNT 18.8 (4.9) 6.7 (8.9) 17.8 (8.3)22.0 (‡)
PALPA55 (/24) 16.9 (5.6)NTNT 18.8 (2.9) 10.9 (4.3) 20.3 (5.7) 13.5 (2.1)
Baxter Spelling Test (/30)15.1 (8.8)NTNT15.2 (5.7) 3.1 (6.1)12.5 (7.6) 6.0 (N/A )
Episodic memory
RMT faces (/50) 34.2 (7.6) 32.9 (8.2) 31.8 (7.1)0.72 35.5 (8.0) 28.1 (5.0) 32.9 (5.7) 27.0 (5.7)
RMT words (/50) 39.0 (9.3) 36.9 (9.9) 36.2 (8.5)0.84 35.8 (11.0) 29.3 (7.5) 33.4 (7.1) 34.0 (9.9)
Other skills
GDA (/24)4.7 (5.8)11.2 (7.8)6.5 (5.6)0.10 1.8 (2.1) 0.7 (1.5)11.3 (7.5) 2.0 (2.8)
VOSP (/20)14.9 (3.9)14.8 (4.6) 13.2 (5.9)0.4515.5 (3.2) 12.3 (4.1)16.8 (2.9) 10.0 (7.1)
Behavioural changes
Disinhibition (n (%)5 (24)13 (87)11 (92)0.680 (0)3 (43)12 (60)2 (100)
Apathy (n (%))11 (52)13 (87)10 (83)0.811 (17)5 (71)8 (40)2 (100)
Obsessiveness (n (%))6 (29)12 (80)9 (75)0.761 (17)2 (29)12 (60)2 (100)
Aberrant motor (n (%))7 (33)11 (73)8 (67)0.710 (0)3 (43)5 (25)1 (50)
Parkinsonism
Present (n (%))13 (62) 1 (7)2 (17)0.413 (50)3 (43)0 (0)0 (0)
  • The table summarises demographic, clinical, behavioural and neuropsychological data for all participant groups, subdivided on the basis of whether or not they made binary reversals. Mean (SD) data are shown unless otherwise indicated; maximum scores on neuropsychological tests are shown in parentheses. Neuropsychological scores in bold indicate performance below the 10th percentile according to published norms or local normative data from the Dementia Research Centre research cohort of older healthy controls (n=40, 21 males, 19 females, mean age 68.0 (6.1)). bvFTD subgroups with and without binary reversals have been compared statistically, as case numbers in this diagnostic group made the comparison meaningful; significant differences between subgroups (p<0.05) are coded in italics. Not all neuropsychological tests were completed by all patients; numbers in the bvFTD group missing data for each test are presented in online supplemental table S2 in online supplemental material.

  • *All patients in the nfvPPA group exhibited binary reversals; two patients in this group fulfilled criteria for primary progressive apraxia of speech (ie, presentation with ‘pure’ speech apraxia and normal performance on key language tests: GNT, BPVS, PALPA55 and sentence construction).

  • †Estimated duration of symptoms.

  • ‡Missing data left only one patient so SD could not be calculated.

  • §In-house written sentence construction task to assess output grammar.

  • ¶Eight patients in the nfvPPA group had features of PSP or CBS; parkinsonism lacked diagnostic features in other syndromic groups.

  • BPVS, British Picture Vocabulary Scale; bvFTD, patient group with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia; GDA, Graded Difficulty Arithmetic Test; GNT, Graded Naming Test; lvPPA, patient group with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia; med, median; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination score; NART, National Adult Reading Test; nfvPPA, patient group with non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia; NT, not tested; PALPA55, Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Processing in Aphasia sentence–picture matching subtest; RMT, Recognition Memory Test; svPPA, patient group with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia; TMT, Trail Making Test Parts A / B; VOSP, Visual Object and Space Perception Battery.