Biomarker | Baseline† | Week 12‡ | Week 24‡ | P value§ | |||

PB and TURSO (n=81) | Placebo (n=45) | PB and TURSO (n=81) | Placebo (n=45) | PB and TURSO (n=81) | Placebo (n=45) | ||

YKL-40 | 32.7 (1.98) | 31.5 (1.69) | 31.6 (1.05) | 35.2 (1.06) | 31.4 (1.06) | 38.8 (1.08) | 0.008 |

CHIT1 | 35.4 (3.85)¶ | 40.5 (2.23) | 33.5 (1.12) | 35.8 (1.12) | 31.5 (1.13) | 35.9 (1.14) | 0.094 |

CRP | 1686.7 (3.10) | 2029.1 (4.58) | 1817.9 (1.11) | 2185.6 (1.12) | 1833.6 (1.14) | 2650.2 (1.18) | 0.048 |

*All concentrations expressed in ng/mL.

†Geometric mean (SD) concentration.

‡Geometric least-squares mean (SE) concentration (log10-transformed8) from a random-slope, shared-baseline, linear mixed-effects model adjusted for age and ALSFRS-R slope interacting with time.

§For comparison between PB and TURSO group versus placebo group, calculated using shared-baseline, mixed-effects model.

¶Excludes one participant who had a non-positive value for CHIT1 concentration at baseline, as non-positive values cannot be log-transformed.

ALSFRS-R, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised; CHIT1, chitinase 1; CRP, C reactive protein; PB and TURSO, sodium phenylbutyrate and taurursodiol; YKL-40, chitinase-3-like protein 1.